from smb.conf. Instead it needs to be done run-time, like this:
smbpasswd -a root net rpc rights grant root SePrintOperatorPrivilege
First a password is required for root-user. I have one in LDAP, but for some reason a local password is required too. After that permissions for printer administration are granted separately. That pretty much concentrates privilege handling out of any text-files.
The other issue was printer sharing to Windows. It had an easy fix. I deleted the existing printer from Windows and added it again. CUPS had renamed the printer and it was not available with the same name. A basic CUPS / Samba setup with cupsaddsmb does the trick.